Two-dimensional (abbreviated as 2D) means "set up or shown in two dimensions".
Three-dimensional (abbreviated as 3D) means "set up or shown in three dimensions." It is a spatial representation of bodies. The viewer gets a good impression of spatial relations.
In 3D design, a designer uses all three dimensions to digitally develop a realistic figure of an object. It is an attempt to achieve a digital reality by taking over the levels of human vision in the presentation of the content created. The development steps of a 3D design are as follows: 1. modeling (creation of a 3D model), 2. layout design (positioning of the 3D model), 3. animation (moving content in connection with the 3D model), 4. rendering (positioning of the light source).
3D designs are developed using special software (such as 3DS Max, Cinema4D, Houdini FX) and can be digitally reproduced.
3D modeling is the process of developing a three-dimensional representation of any surface of an object using special software.
The basis for the creation of a so-called digital 3D model is data from the surface measurement.
Based on 3D models, a 3D artist can create object-specific animations: 3D renderings are used as a simulation for planned projects.
A 3D model is a three-dimensional virtual graphic that digitally represents a real object to scale.
This projection technology creates three-dimensional effects on a surface and gives the viewer the impression of the projection surface and the projections shown would merge into a new entity.
From an projection surface (facade) a 3D model is created, which reproduces the exact dimensions and structures ( for example positions of windows, tabs, etc.). Taking into account all features and characteristics of the projection surface, video content is produced.
This new technology makes it possible to project graphics, animations, photos not only on smooth screens but also on three-dimensional surfaces. In combination with sound design, a 3D video projection mapping allows the fabulous world of optical illusions to occur, also known as “augmented reality”. In practice, the term 3D projection mapping is usually applied to customized 3d projections on buildings.
3D visualization is the process of computer-based creation of video content, which is used to simulate a lighting project. This leads to a realistic impression of the final result.
A 4D projection mapping describes a 3D projection mapping show, which is complemented by real existing elements such as fireworks, confetti, fire or the like.
Analog signals theoretically provide infinitely accurate information and are infinitely variable. They are converted to digital formats during digitization. In the process, tiny fragments are lost. The digital data thus obtained can be saved and transported quickly. When digital signals are output, they are converted back into analog signals.
An animation is the sum of artificially generated individual images that when show as a sequence form a film
Lumen is the unit that indicates the size of a luminous flux (amount of light emanating from a light source). If a luminous flux is emitted by projectors, the ANSI Lumen unit will be used. This value is an important benchmark for selecting the projector type according to the ambient conditions: For best projection results, the luminance, which makes up the existing ambient light on a projection surface, should be exceeded by five times by the projector used.
An atmosphere is, inter alia, a mood, a feeling, which is conveyed from the external environment and is not reproducible. Atmosphere denotes an actual state.
Augmented reality is the computer-aided extension of the perception of reality. Virtual reality and reality are combined (often the two levels overlap). The augmented reality actually expands the existing, the invisible becomes visible: Thus, an additional communication and information level is created. The augmented reality ranges from simple text overlays to video and sound editions to animated content. 3D projection mapping and projection mapping complement the physical world with virtual representations and fall into the field of augmented reality.
For optimum projection results in façade projections, adhesive window design is recommended in which the window surfaces of a building are covered with white, matt (non-transparent) foil.
An air-conditioned protection housing ensures optimal climatic conditions for projection technology in unfavorable climatic conditions. The technology is firmly enclosed in the protective housing and is thus shielded from the ambient conditions. The air conditioning inside takes place in part without air exchange, thus preventing the deposition of dirt particles on mirrors, panels and lenses. Innovative housings provide low noise and low maintenance performance.
See Edge Blending
Character animation refers to the digital design of a figure with a realistic appearance in terms of movement and facial expressions as well as the fitting of the figure into the figurative world. With the help of a 3D program, figures are animated from images and thus brought to life virtually.
In order to achieve a good image quality, a high color quality is indispensable.
The key factors for color quality are color space / color depth and color contrast. The more differentiated the output medium can reproduce these, the better the image quality.
The color temperature defines a measure that determines the color impression of a light source and is specified quantitatively in Kelvin (K). 2,900K correspond to "warm white". 4000 K correspond to "intermediate / neutral white" and 6000 K correspond to "cool white", which has a partially visible blue proportion.
Cartography or mapping is defined by the mediation and visualization of spatial information for different media with digital and analog technologies.
The contrast basically specifies the ratio between the brightest white and the darkest black, which can be shown by an output medium, so its quantitative ability to produce a high-contrast image. The contrast ratio is of the utmost importance for image quality: the higher the contrast, the sharper and livelier the image appears.
A custom solution is responding to specific requirements of the customer: A customized solution is found and implemented.
Control technology describes technologies for controlling various technical elements.
This type of projector is based on a DMD chip (Digital Micromirror Device), a matrix of tiny moving mirrors which are electronically controlled by an integrated electrostatic actuator. These mirrors can be folded up to over 20.000 times per second. Each mirror represents one pixel.The brightness is adjusted via light pulses deflected per frame to the optic, the rest of the light is directed onto an absorber. In order to represent colors, the DMD chip is alternately illuminated with the individual primary colors via a color wheel or RGB LEDs. Alternatively, three DMD chips with the primary colors are used.
The design surface is the area which is covered by the projection.
A dome projection is a 360 ° projection on half- or full-dome in optimum projection quality without image distortion. Locations include spa landscapes, planetariums, theme parks.
If one projector is not efficient to cover the screen size, edge-blending technology is used. This technology allows to project one image onto the surface using a plurality of projectors projecting without an overlap effect. There are projectors which are equipped with edge blending function, alternatively there is special software that allows this effect
The term eye-catcher denotes a visual attraction or head turner. With an Eye-catcher attention can be directed to an object.
Film production refers to the production process of a film.
A Fog Screen is a technical device that arises a screen of fog. Atomized water escapes in the form of mist from the Fog Screen. The water particles are so microscopic that the Fog Screen can be passed without leaving a feeling of wetness. With the help of a projector the screen will show pictures or video content.
Attribute that refers to futurism: Futurism denotes something groundbreaking in the future.
A projection on a surface of glass generally fails due to the transparency of the material on which the luminous flux can not break. In order to realize a projection onto glass, the bonding of the surface with a special foil is required.
A highlight marks the climax of a development and refers mostly to a show at an event.
An interplay of shapes and colors = images, which create a new unity of oneness. Theme and space become custom-made imagery and convey a new perspective.
The image quality describes the quality or resolution of an image. The quality, that can be achieved theoretically, is described in pixels. The actual image quality depends on several factors, such as optics, noise performance and refresh rate (regarding moving pictures). The resolution in the technical sense refers to playback and depends on the visual output device.
A projection processes image signals. Here, the image quality is also dependent on luminosity of the projector, image quality, contrast and sharpness, throw ratio, positioning and keystone distortion and surrounding light.
For analog projections (e g lightmotiv) a division of the image into pixels is not given. The resolution is theoretically infinite. Also a refresh rate does not come to fruition.
The selected use of light for artistic and decorative purposes is called illumination. While the concept of lighting implies the design with light for purely practical reasons, the term Illumination describes the aesthetic use of light.
The term immersive is a derivative of the word immersion. The attribute describes the effect that virtual realities have on the viewer: he increasingly identifies with the virtual world and immerses himself completely in this illusory world.
An immersive experience can be made through augmented reality. Here, virtual content gets an application in the real world with the help of digital tools.
Attribute that refers to innovation: A reform or renewal is called innovation and it describes an implementation made for the first time.
An inspiration is an idea that forms the basis of a mental or creative activity. Gladly, inspiration is given an enlightening quality.
Attribute related to Interactivity: Interactivity refers to an implicit exchange of information in correlation between two or more quantities. In the case of multimedia applications, the corresponding software enables the interactivity of the user with regard to various intervention and control options.
A floor, a wall, or even a table becomes an experimental area by an interactive projection. The viewer as an active moving part of the installation interacts with the projection. The projection contents can be individualized.
A symbiosis of different light sources and colors is called interplay of light.
The color temperature or color of light sources is indicated in Kelvin (K). It is a measure for the wavelength of the light, and it features the character of light sources.
A projector with a laser phospor lamp has the following advantages over the projectors with conventional discharge lamps: it has a much longer life and a higher energy efficiency as well as better color rendering properties in the blue / green area.
Laser Technology is used to detect individual elements of surfaces (e.g. facades) exactly. The laser allows for precise, ambitious, detailed measurement of an object and its structures, which is the basis for a site-specific projection.
Architectural lighting with LED enhances the visual impact of a building, as a discreet light line or as large-scale illumination. This way effective accents can be produced, which are accurately definable and controllable in light color and dynamics. The long service life of LED technology saves energy and maintenance and therefore allows installation in inaccessible places. Positioning in the structure or close to the facade also significantly reduces unwanted light emissions.
An object illumination with flexible and compact LED modules is characterized by a high-precise lighting. Very small installation dimensions allow LED solutions with intelligent lighting control to impressively show all types of objects to best advantage. The areas of application are diverse: Arts and Culture, Hotel and Shops as well as emergency lighting.
LED Wellness illuminations in spa areas convince with its qualities to influence mood and emotions. LED light creates a pleasant atmosphere. The flexibility of LED systems regarding the control of color, intensity and dynamic performance offer a wide range of design options: shades of green to relax, turquoise blue in the pool area evoking cleanliness and freshness, subtle light levels at rest areas, bright "cleaning light", gentle dynamics for vitalization.
LED stands for "Light Emitting Diode" and it describes a semiconductor diode that lights up when power is supplied. LEDs have low power consumption and high efficiency.
The application of LED technology is manifold due to its energy efficiency and durability: indoors and outdoors as well as for temporary installations. The range of use and design possibilities are varied by the large range of colors as well as by small mounting dimensions of the LED modules.
Light art designates an autonomous art form. Contemporary light artists are working mainly with artificial light as the light source. Light art is ex definitione light art if the use of light follows aesthetic purposes. Most of the works of light art will need the substantial absence of natural (day) light and of competing artificial light sources to develop their full effectiveness.
A lighting solution describes a lighting concept for event management or permanent installations. For optimal results it is important to identify light requirements and implement these with lighting technology and lighting management.
The light output is a term commonly used in colloquial speech and describes the luminous flux. This indicates the total amount of visible electromagnetic radiation emitted by a light source. The unit of measure used for this is lumen (lm).
Lighting Planning describes the purposeful design with lighting technology. Planning a light situation is affected by the qualities of a room (surfaces, materials) and incident daylight.
The term lighting conditions roughly describes the existing on-site brightness. Daylight conditions mean a great brightness like outdoors at daytime (over 1000 LUX). Mixed lighting conditions usually show ratios like in artificially lit interiors (200-500 LUX). Dark lighting conditions describe lighting levels as at night or in dark rooms (under 200 LUX).
Analog projection technology, invented by TNL in 1999 (patent no. 1073934), that screens static and dynamic image content onto any surface and allows a static and dynamic projection mapping when the projection template is adapted site-specifically. The capacity of the light source is up to 7000 watts. The maximum image size is about 100 meters per projector in the dark.
The lightmotiv projector enlarges the liquid content of a shone through petri dish with projection sizes up to 100 meters in diameter. A lightmotiv artist influences the content of the projection mixture by adding effect substances and rotation. The multicoloured images are formed in a constant flow by processes of structural formation which are stimulated by the different substances.
lightmotiv.content: Visual content created with the lightmotiv projector then filmed and are digitally reproduced
lightmotiv.event: Illuminations with patented lightmotiv projectors at events – for interior and exterior applications
lightmotiv.static: lightmotiv projections captured and processed into a decorative feature as LED frame (illuminated picture), canvas print (printed on canvas) and wallpaper.
Lumen (lm) is the unit of luminous flux, and is a measure of the entire visible radiation emitted by a light source in all directions.
Lux (lx) is the unit of illuminance and the corresponding specific emission. One lux corresponds to the luminous flux of one lumen per square meter. Lux is a receiving size and serves as a measure of brightness.
A lens is an optical system, which usually consists of glass lenses. With a lens, an object (in the case of projections, the object is a projection template) is visually displayed. The lens is always located between the projection template and the image.
Attribute that refers to magic: Something tangible, surreal, mysterious or inexplicable is called magic.
A media server is a computer that is optimized for playback of video content in high resolution. Its main parameters are: powerful graphic card and corresponding digital connections for video output.
Morphing describes a computer-generated special effect in the image or sound design. In morphing, intermediate transitions between two frames or two sounds are calculated. Unlike traditional fade-ins, morphing transforms one image into another by using additional targeted distortions. It is the attempt to create the most effective possible transition starting from the source medium to a target medium.
Motion design or motion graphics refers to the audiovisual image design with digital technology: the animated representation of movement. Different formats, such as two-dimensional and three-dimensional animation, video, film, typography, illustration, photography and music are creatively combined. The result is a synthesis of different media elements ("mixed media art").
With Motion Design, a lighting project can be simulated as a video to give a sense of what the project would look like. This process is called 3D visualization.
Also digitally generated 3D animations can be shown by projectors and are the basis for 3D video mapping shows.
See Motion Design
Multimedia denotes contents and works, which consist of several most digital media. Elements such as animation, audio, video, graphics, photography and text merge into one.
Multimedia technology is used to link different media, see multimedia.
Attribute that refers to mysticism: Mysticism describes experiences beyond the absolute reality.
The object illumination refers to the effective LED illumination of objects.
On the one hand, these can be targeted accentuating illuminations, which attract the attention of the observer and are used especially in the retail trade. On the other hand, zoned illuminations, e.g. of an interior facade, are used to give a room a structure and harmonious atmosphere.
OLED stands for "Organic Light Emitting Diode": a light-emitting diode from thin-film organic semiconducting materials. The organic light emitting diode differs from the LED (inorganic light-emitting diode) in their lower current density and laminar light density.
Panorama refers to a digital representation (image or projection) with a wide viewing angle. By using special techniques it allows the viewer to obtain more content than with conventional technologies. A panoramic image may circumferentially cover up to 360 degrees.
A panorama projection contains of the compilation of several projection systems, which significantly enlarge the field of view of the observer. Panoramic projections are produced by compositing partial images / -projections. This is possible through the soft-edge blending function of every single projector. By the dimension of the panoramic projection the viewer feels very much put into the virtual world. The 360 ° panorama projection forms the high-end of visualization options.
A projection mapping is a projection on an object, which creates the possibility to work with partial depth. Real objects are illuminated exactly so that the projection applies precisely to the surfaces of an object. The content of the projection is a playground for optical illusions: An object can be redefined completely in its nature, it can be deformed, the color and structure can change, it can be deconstructed, etc. Domes, spheres, fog, furniture and vehicles are objects that are appropriate for a projection are, adjacent to buildings. The technique of projection mapping is used effectively for product presentations and in the event sector.
A project is understood to be a targeted, mostly one-time undertaking. The division of tasks is determined and there are precise deadlines, as well as a defined start and end point.
A projection is referred to the transfer of an image (= projection template) to a projection surface. A typical example is the projection onto a screen using a projector. According to the type of projection template it is distinguished between e.g. episkope, slide, shadow, film, video and laser projection.
The experience to look at a projection, which often is very emotional, is called projection experience.
A projection surface describes the area that represents the "catching surface" of projected images. Ideally, the projection surface has a light and matt surface structure (exception is the projection surface in a rear projection). There are hardly any limits to the selection of the projection surface in terms of shape, size and level of spatial depth.
Projections on demanding projection surfaces are often generated by composite partial images / projections. Here, content tailored to the spatial conditions is produced and output via several projectors.
Projection content is content to be represented / conveyed by a projection. Custom-made content can be produced for a projection or it can be referred to existing movies / images.
With projection technology images and templates can be displayed in enlarged form on a projection surface. For more information: see Projector
A projection template is an object, which is located in a projector and is displayed therefrom with light on a projection surface.
A projector is a device with which a master image is projected onto a projection surface using rays of light. A projector includes its own light source, an imaging plane (containing in the original image) and a lens that allows the imaging plane to be sharply displayed on the screen.
To calculate the necessary light output for a projection, the factors projection size as well as brightness in the area of the projection (in regards to possible scattered light) are taken into account. High-performance projectors with a light output of 30,000 ANSI lumens and more are used for particularly brilliant projections.
An adhesive projection foil placed on window surfaces is used in order to enable a projection to enfold on an otherwise critical area. The functional foil is available in transparent and white versions.
The resolution describes the number of dots (pixels) from which an image is composed. The level of resolution has an impact on the level of detail of the image perception, which is perceived as image sharpness by the viewer. Basically, the higher the resolution, the sharper the image.
A rear projection describes a projection of static or moving images "from behind", that is seen from behind the projection surface from the direction of the viewer. Rear projections are used when shadowing is to be avoided or when a room situation does not allow a front projection.
See 3D Visualization
A soundtrack that accompanies an animation acoustically is called sound design. For this purpose, both musical moods and melodies are used as well as sound effects that enhance the displayed content in its expression. The use of spatial sound effects can deepen the immersing of the viewer in the visual world of the animations.
A special lens is a lens designed for a specific application.
Attribute that refers to sphere: The area that surrounds something is called sphere, environment or setting.
Stage design is the scenic design of a stage set that defines the action of the stage performance (such as theater, concert) spatially, atmospherically and temporally.
The design possibilities of stage design are manifold: from illustrative decoration to subjective architecture to room installation. The stage design is fine-tuned by means of a lighting concept that decisively influences the psychological effect of a stage set on the viewer through the lighting.
At the intersection of stage design and lighting are stage design animations, also called stage visuals. The use of these projections, often as backdrop mapping matched object-specific to the stage set, works in large spatial contexts. The resulting multimedia stage sets can have a very complex effect and create a direct link between real performance and the viewer's world of ideas.
A site-specific projection with a still image is called static projection mapping. A static projection mapping is implemented with projectors, which can output still images such as slide projectors and overhead projectors. The custom-made template for the surface structure of the object to be illuminated is contained in the image plane (film, slide). The perfectly adjusted single images are then projected onto the object and create an optical illusion (augmented reality).
A storyboard or script describes a content-related sequence of scenes and forms the basis for creating motion design.
The throw ratio is also circumscribed as a projection distance ratio. It allows to calculate a projection distance in accordance to the image size or to calculate an image size in accordance to the projection distance.
Production of projection content. See also Projection Content
Video projection mapping (in short: Video Mapping) is realized with video projectors. It refers to the process, of a site-specific Illumination of structured and three-dimensional surfaces with a video projector. The projection plane of the video projector outputs the file, which contains the customized template for the surface structure.
Video projection mapping is regarded as an innovative form of media art. The technology of projection mapping is used by both artists as well as by advertisers to make optical illusions on static objects something that can be experienced. A projection mapping often includes an audio output to accompany the effects with sound. When video and audio are included it is then referred to as projection mapping show.
Virtual reality, VR for short, is called a computer-generated reality: a realistic representation of time and space in the virtual world. Unlike augmented reality, the viewer no longer perceives the real world.
Attribute referring to virtuality: The property of a thing not to exist in the form in which it seems to exist, but to resemble in its essence or effect a thing existing in that form. Thus, an imagined or by their properties concretized size is generated, which exists not physically, but in their functionality or effect.
Synonymous with visual perception: Visual perception describes all actions which affect vision.
A visual illusion is an optical illusion and can affect all aspects of vision. The perception of the viewer does not coincide with the objectively measurable reality: objects appear changed in size, color, shape, movement or importance.
Wellness Illumination describes the lighting design of wellness areas, mostly with LED technology and projection technology. Light and color have a steering effect on the human biorhythm, so atmospheric lighting of wellness or spa areas is very effective.
A gentle basic lighting with indirect light, which is variably controllable in brightness and color is usually a good basis for the wellness illumination. Color highlights or atmospheric projections complete the lighting solution for the wellness area.
The wow effect colloquially describes a state of consciousness of surprise and emotional appeal, resulting from a positive visual impression of the viewer. A sure sign of a realized wow effect are viewers who film with their cellphones.